Okay, so now you know the risks, what can you do to prevent them? Try to eat healthy diet full of fresh vegetables, fruits, proteins, and complex carbohydrates. Try to avoid excess sugar, soda pop, and juices. Typically if you can include a small amount of protein with each meal, you will keep your blood sugars more stable and will not have rapid drops in sugar levels which make you crave more of the unhealthy sugars that contribute to some of the above problems. Protein is found in meats, fish, beans, nuts, peanut butter, tofu, yogurt, and cheese. I find if I tell patients that are feeling episodes of dizziness to include a small amount of protein with each meal, they tend to do better.
The other thing is exercise. Although I'm not a believer that you should be out running marathons or anything too strenuous, a little bit of exercise will help you maintain a normal weight gain with pregnancy and can help you be in shape for delivery. I would recommend walking, swimming, light aerobics, light weight lifting (no greater than about 10 lbs), yoga or pilates. Exercise also increases your brains natural endorphins such as serotonin and norepinephrine making you less depressed and moody.
Well, all of that being said, genetics do play a role in the size of your baby and some other conditions that you may not have total control of. So don't beat yourself up if you have a baby less than 6 lbs or over 9 lbs, you may not have been able to help it. I'm only suggesting ways to try and have the healthiest pregnancy and birth experience for you and your baby....